Using WGCNA, GO and KEGG data analysis tools, He Y et al. in the January 2024 issue of BMC Medical Genomics, established a connection among the genes and pathways associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and ischemic stroke (IS) and identified GRN (granulin precursor) as the hub gene in T2D-related stroke. The functional enrichment analysis using Reactome analysis tool for GRN identified Neutrophil degranulation, Toll-like Receptor Cascades, DDX58/IFIH1-mediated induction of interferon-alpha/ beta, and NLR signaling pathways as shared biological processes in T2D and IS.

In the July 2023 issue of BMB Reports, Lee et al. (2023) employed the Reactome pathway database and tools to predict the anti-cancer effects of rutin, a natural phytochemical identified as a lead chemotherapeutic against breast cancer by text mining Korean traditional medicinal compendia from 1596 CE and 1613 CE. Genes that may be associated with rutin's effects were analyzed for pathway enrichment and functional interactions by the Reactome Functional Interaction (FI) plugin app of Cytoscape. Focal adhesion and Apoptosis were among the pathways predicted to be affected by rutin and these effects were confirmed by treatment of breast cancer cells with rutin in vitro and in xenografts in mice.

In the November 2023 issue of Cell Communication and Signaling, Bukva et al. (2023) analyzed the proteomes of tumor-produced extracellular vesicles and identified sets of proteins that could discriminate tumor types, invasiveness, and proliferative capacity. In this analysis, 172 most predictive proteins were identified and used to classify nine tumor types with 91.67% efficiency. Reactome Pathway enrichment analysis of these proteins showed that each tumor type had perturbations in a distinct set of pathways. The proteins could be organized and used to discriminate the invasiveness and proliferative capacity of the tumors. High expression of proteins positively associated with invasiveness and proliferation correlated with reduced patient survival times.

In the chapter entitled “New Insights into Clinical Management for Sickle Cell Disease: Uncovering the Significant Pathways Affected by the Involvement of Sickle Cell Disease”, published in Methods in Molecular Biology 2024, Chouhan et al. describe the use of Reactome FIviz Cytoscape plugin to analyze pathway enrichment and construct a functional interaction network for DisGNET-derived sickle cell disease-associated genes, identifying genes involved in “Glucuronidation”, “Aspirin ADME”, “Phase II-Conjugation of compounds”, “Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling”, “Interleukin-10 signaling”, “Signaling by interleukins”, “Biological oxidations”, and “Cytokine signaling in immune system”.

In their paper titled “XMR: an explainable multimodal neural network for drug response prediction” published in Frontiers in Bioinformatics in August 2023, Wang et al. use five Reactome pathways, Cell Cycle, DNA repair, Disease, Signal transduction, and Metabolism, as an architecture of a visible neural network that is part of a deep learning model for prediction of drug responses in triple negative breast cancer.

In the  August 2, 2023 issue of Clinical Epigenetics, Miller et al. performed an epigenome-wide association study using Reactome  Functional Interaction network analysis and determined that DNA methylation at loci involved in calcium channel activity and development was associated with long-term cardiovascular disease risk beyond known risk factors in type 1 diabetes, particularly in individuals with greater glycemic exposure.

​​With current treatments, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the largest cause of nephrotic syndrome, frequently progresses to end-stage kidney disease. Gebeshuber et al. (2023) assembled 376 FSGS-associated proteins into a FSGS pathophysiology model, major components of which were Reactome pathways for signal transduction and hemostasis. The 39 proteins shared between FSGS model and a 102-protein model for the antiplatelet drug clopidogrel included 20 therapeutic targets of the drug. Tested in an FSGS mouse model, clopidogrel significantly attenuated disease severity, repositioning the drug as an attractive candidate for human clinical trials for FSGS.

Using Reactome analysis tools and FIVIz, Balmorez et al. in the March 2023 issue of Int. J. Mol. Sci., established a commonality between the genes and pathways associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Ageing (AR) and Longevity. The pathways shared between AD and AR are p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, FOXO-mediated transcription, and SUMOylation; between AD and longevity are Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, Plasma lipoprotein assembly, remodeling, and clearance, Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, and NR1H2- and NR1H3-mediated signalling; and between AR and Longevity are Immune system and Cytokine signaling.

The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) responsible for congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and a range of other congenital malformations. With little known about the pathways involved in CZS, Gratton et al in the February 2020 issue of Microorganisms conducted a meta-analysis of transcriptome studies to identify the genes and pathways altered during Zika infection. Reactome analysis identified interferon, pro-inflammatory, and chemokines signaling as well as apoptosis as key IFN signaling pathways in ZIKV-infected cells with three new candidate genes involved in hNPCs infection identified: APOL6, XAF1, and TNFRSF1.

Pregnancies complicated by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at an increased risk of severe morbidity. In multi-omics analyses investigating the pathophysiology behind severe COVID-19 disease, Altendahl et al, in the November 2022 issue of PLoS One found precipitous changes in maternal serum in those with severe COVID-19 infection. Reactome pathway enrichment analysis revealed upregulated analytes in 4 pathways: Complement cascade, Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, and FCGR activation.

Tagliazucchi L et al. 2023 in the March 2023 issue of ACS Infectious Diseases used the REACTOME overrepresentation and pathway topology analyses to identify Transport of small molecules, Cellular response to stress and other pathways associated with drug resistance and therapeutic failure (TF) during Leishmania infantum infection; they also discovered NDK3 and TFRC as potential targets for host-directed anti-Leishmania therapies to overcome drug-resistance.

The Reactome database helped Yu et al. in the January 2023 issue of the Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research identify candidate drugs for treatment of four subtypes of lung cancer that were categorized by pharmaco-genomic analysis of patient-derived cells and correlated with drug sensitivity of the patient-derived cells and with Reactome pathways identified by gene set variation analysis.

Analysis of all constituents of entire Reactome pathways identified by the presence of upregulated or mutated genes helped Valdivia et al. in the February, 2023 issue of Translational Vision Science & Technology to identify druggable targets and potential drugs for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Drugs affecting MMP13 and LGALS3 in the regulation of myeloid cell differentiation by RUNX2 were notable candidates.

Reactome overrepresentation analyses of differentially expressed genes common to both Autism Spectrum Disorder and Tourette Syndrome help identify common targetable inflammatory pathways as described by Alshammeryet al. in the December 2022 issue of Frontiers in Neuroscience.

Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) conducted on Reactome’s carbohydrate metabolism pathways identifies the Pentose phosphate pathway and the Glucose metabolism pathway as the two most frequently upregulated pathways in tumors with high tumor-specific total mRNA expression (TmS) across 15 tumor types; TmS is a novel tumor phenotype-predictive quantitative feature described by Cao et al. in the November 2022 issue of Nature Biotechnology.

Reactome pathway gene sets in the MSigDB facilitated identification of the liver proteasome transcriptional switch that acts as the fasting timer in intermittent fasting in work published by Wei et al. in Cell Reports on October 25, 2022. The authors suggest that a 16-hour interval in intermittent fasting may be most beneficial for health.

Reactome pathway enrichment analysis helps to pinpoint expansion of regulatory T cells as a new biomarker of CAR T cell therapy resistance and toxicity in patients with B cell lymphoma. The study was published by Good et al. in Nature Medicine on September 12, 2022.