Biosynthesis of protectins

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil is the source of protectins (PDs), one of the specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) that show potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions (Molfino et al. 2017, Balas & Durand 2016). The switch from synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, such as the prostaglandins and the thromboxanes, to the pro-resolving lipoxins, resolvins and protectins, occurs via induction of the 15-lipoxygenase enzyme.

Protectin, identified as (N)PD1 (N signifies neuroprotectin when produced in neural tissues) is derived from DHA through the actions of 15-lipoxygenase then enzymatic hydrolysis. Aspirin can also trigger the formation of epimeric protectin (AT-PD1) (Serhan et al. 2015). An additional protectin (DX) is formed through the sequential actions of two lipoxygenase reactions. The biosynthesis of these protectins is described here (Balas & Durand 2016, Balas et al. 2014, Serhan et al. 2014, Serhan et al. 2015).
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
24262603 Confusion between protectin D1 (PD1) and its isomer protectin DX (PDX). An overview on the dihydroxy-docosatrienes described to date

Lagarde, M, Guichardant, M, Durand, T, Balas, L

Biochimie 2014
26545300 Dihydroxylated E,E,Z-docosatrienes. An overview of their synthesis and biological significance

Durand, T, Balas, L

Prog. Lipid Res. 2016
25359497 Lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation

Serhan, CN, Levy, BD, Chiang, N, Dalli, J

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2014
25139562 Protectins and maresins: New pro-resolving families of mediators in acute inflammation and resolution bioactive metabolome

Serhan, CN, Colas, RA, Winkler, JW, Chiang, N, Dalli, J

Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2015
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