Biosynthesis of protectins

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil is the source of protectins (PDs), one of the specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) that show potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions (Molfino et al. 2017, Balas & Durand 2016). The switch from synthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, such as the prostaglandins and the thromboxanes, to the pro-resolving lipoxins, resolvins and protectins, occurs via induction of the 15-lipoxygenase enzyme.

Protectin, identified as (N)PD1 (N signifies neuroprotectin when produced in neural tissues) is derived from DHA through the actions of 15-lipoxygenase then enzymatic hydrolysis. Aspirin can also trigger the formation of epimeric protectin (AT-PD1) (Serhan et al. 2015). An additional protectin (DX) is formed through the sequential actions of two lipoxygenase reactions. The biosynthesis of these protectins is described here (Balas & Durand 2016, Balas et al. 2014, Serhan et al. 2014, Serhan et al. 2015).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
26545300 Dihydroxylated E,E,Z-docosatrienes. An overview of their synthesis and biological significance

Balas, L, Durand, T

Prog. Lipid Res. 2016
24262603 Confusion between protectin D1 (PD1) and its isomer protectin DX (PDX). An overview on the dihydroxy-docosatrienes described to date

Balas, L, Guichardant, M, Durand, T, Lagarde, M

Biochimie 2014
25359497 Lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation

Serhan, CN, Chiang, N, Dalli, J, Levy, BD

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2014
25139562 Protectins and maresins: New pro-resolving families of mediators in acute inflammation and resolution bioactive metabolome

Serhan, CN, Dalli, J, Colas, RA, Winkler, JW, Chiang, N

Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2015
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