Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane

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Homo sapiens
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Cilium biogenesis is initiated by the docking of basal bodies, a centriole-derived organelle, to the plasma membrane (reviewed in Reiter et al, 2012). The centriole consists of a multiprotein core surrounded by a ring of nine microtubule triplets; the mother centriole additionally has 'distal' and 'subdistal appendages' that are critical for ciliogenesis (reviewed in Kim and Dynlacht, 2013; Firat-Karalar and Stearns, 2014; Bettencourt-Dias et al, 2011). Basal bodies initiate and anchor the extension of the axonemal microtubules and also associate with secretory vesicles which are thought to provide membrane components for the extension of the ciliary membrane (Sorokin, 1962; Sorokin, 1968; Bachmann-Gagescu et al, 2011; Tanos et al, 2013; reviewed in Ishikawa et al, 2011; Reiter et al, 2012). Basal bodies are attached to the plasma membrane through a proteinaceous network of transition fibers that form part of the 'transition zone' at the ciliary base. The transition zone acts as a selective barrier or ciliary pore, excluding vesicles and limiting the diffusion of proteins and lipids from the cytosol or plasma membrane (Deane et al, 2001; Craige et al, 2010; Garcia-Gonzalo et al, 2011; Ye et al, 2014; Joo et al, 2013; reviewed in Nachury et al, 2010; Hsiao et al, 2012; Reiter et al, 2012). In addition to the transition fibres, the transition zone also consists of the ciliary necklace (a row of protein particles at the ciliary membrane at the base of the cilium) and the Y-links (that connect the axonemal microtubules to the membrane at the ciliary necklace) (Williams et al, 2011; reviewed in Hsiao et al, 2012; Reiter et al, 2012).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
21427764 Ciliogenesis: building the cell's antenna

Ishikawa, H, Marshall, WF

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2011
5661997 Reconstructions of centriole formation and ciliogenesis in mammalian lungs

Sorokin, SP

J. Cell. Sci. 1968
24469809 C2cd3 is critical for centriolar distal appendage assembly and ciliary vesicle docking in mammals

Zeng, H, Ning, G, Liu, A, Reiter, JF, Ye, X

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2014
22653444 The base of the cilium: roles for transition fibres and the transition zone in ciliary formation, maintenance and compartmentalization

Leroux, MR, Blacque, OE, Reiter, JF

EMBO Rep. 2012
23747070 Assembling a primary cilium

Dynlacht, BD, Kim, S

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 2013
23348840 Centriole distal appendages promote membrane docking, leading to cilia initiation

Tanos, BE, Soni, R, Wang, WJ, Tsou, MF, Macaluso, FP, Asara, JM, Yang, HJ

Genes Dev. 2013
21725307 A transition zone complex regulates mammalian ciliogenesis and ciliary membrane composition

Garcia-Gonzalo, FR, Sirerol-Piquer, MS, García-Verdugo, JM, Bennett, CL, Seol, AD, Robinson, JF, Josifova, DJ, Ramaswami, G, Katsanis, N, Hildebrandt, F, Noriega, TR, Reiter, JF, Otto, EA, Corbit, KC

Nat. Genet. 2011
23530209 CCDC41 is required for ciliary vesicle docking to the mother centriole

Kim, J, Kim, CH, Park, WY, Kim, CG, Gleeson, JG, Kweon, HS, Kim, MJ, Lee, SH, Lee, MS, Moon, HY, Joo, K

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013
11676918 Localization of intraflagellar transport protein IFT52 identifies basal body transitional fibers as the docking site for IFT particles

Seeley, ES, Deane, JA, Cole, DG, Diener, DR, Rosenbaum, JL

Curr. Biol. 2001
21422230 MKS and NPHP modules cooperate to establish basal body/transition zone membrane associations and ciliary gate function during ciliogenesis

Yoder, BK, Bialas, NJ, Kida, K, Leroux, MR, Williams, CL, Inglis, PN, Mohan, S, Chen, N, Semenec, L, Li, C, Blacque, OE, Stupay, RM

J. Cell Biol. 2011
23351793 Trafficking in and to the primary cilium

Hsiao, YC, Tuz, K, Ferland, RJ

Cilia 2012
19575670 Trafficking to the ciliary membrane: how to get across the periciliary diffusion barrier?

Seeley, ES, Jin, H, Nachury, MV

Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 2010
21816947 The ciliopathy gene cc2d2a controls zebrafish photoreceptor outer segment development through a role in Rab8-dependent vesicle trafficking

Moens, CB, Link, BA, Stearns, G, Doherty, D, Brockerhoff, SE, Bachmann-Gagescu, R, Phelps, IG

Hum. Mol. Genet. 2011
20819941 CEP290 tethers flagellar transition zone microtubules to the membrane and regulates flagellar protein content

Witman, GB, Hou, Y, Tsao, CC, Lechtreck, KF, Diener, DR, Craige, B, Rosenbaum, JL

J. Cell Biol. 2010
25047614 The centriole duplication cycle

Fırat-Karalar, EN, Stearns, T

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 2014
21680046 Centrosomes and cilia in human disease

Hildebrandt, F, Woods, G, Godinho, SA, Pellman, D, Bettencourt-Dias, M

Trends Genet. 2011
13978319 Centrioles and the formation of rudimentary cilia by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells

Sorokin, S

J. Cell Biol. 1962
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