HuR (ELAVL1) binds and stabilizes mRNA

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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HuR (ELAVL1) is a ubiquitous protein that binds AU-rich elements in mRNAs and acts to stabilize the mRNAs. HuR activity is controlled by phosphorylation, with PKC alpha and PCK delta enhancing the ability of HuR to bind and stabilize mRNAs. Binding of mRNAs occurs in the nucleus and HuR then interacts with the CRM1 export pathway to transfer the mRNA to the cytoplasm. The mechanism by which HuR shields the mRNA from degradation is unknown.
HuR also regulates translation of some mRNAs, in some cases repressing translation and in some cases enhancing translation of bound mRNAs by recruiting them to polysomes.
HuR binds and regulates mRNAs encoding Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2, PTGS2), Cyclin A (CCNA, CCNA2), Cyclin D1 (CCND1), Cyclin B1 (CCNB1), CD83 antigen (CD83), and proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS).
HuR is a member of a family of proteins that also contains HuD (ELAVL4), HuB (ELAVL2), and HuC (ELAVL3). HuB, HuC, and HuD are specifically expressed in neural tissue.
HuR participates in apoptosis. During lethal stress HuR becomes mostly cytoplasmic and is a target of Caspase-3 and Caspase-7. The cleavage products of HuR in turn promote apoptosis.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
16391004 AU-rich elements and associated factors: are there unifying principles?

Barreau, C, Paillard, L, Osborne, HB

Nucleic Acids Res 2005
18285462 Posttranslational modification of the AU-rich element binding protein HuR by protein kinase Cdelta elicits angiotensin II-induced stabilization and nuclear export of cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA

Pfeilschifter, J, Müller, R, Doller, A, Huwiler, A, Akool, el-S, Eberhardt, W, Radeke, HH

Mol Cell Biol 2008
14976220 Roles of AUF1 isoforms, HuR and BRF1 in ARE-dependent mRNA turnover studied by RNA interference

Certa, U, Gross, B, Wegmueller, D, Raineri, I, Moroni, C

Nucleic Acids Res 2004
12704645 Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by degradation of messenger RNAs

Ceriani, MC, Bevilacqua, A, Capaccioli, S, Nicolin, A

J Cell Physiol 2003
12440953 AU-rich element-mediated translational control: complexity and multiple activities of trans-activating factors

Kruys, V, Zhang, T, Huez, G, Gueydan, C

Biochem Soc Trans 2002
17392515 Protein kinase C alpha-dependent phosphorylation of the mRNA-stabilizing factor HuR: implications for posttranscriptional regulation of cyclooxygenase-2

Pfeilschifter, J, Müller, R, Doller, A, Huwiler, A, Eberhardt, W, Radeke, HH

Mol Biol Cell 2007
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