Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) is regulated at the level of gene transcription, mRNA translation, localization and degradation. Its gene is often activated under a wide range of stressful conditions. The transcriptional control of HMOX1 is determined by inducible regulatory elements localized in the 5′ region of the promoter, so called antioxidant response elements (ARE)(Raghunath et al, 2018).
AREs on the HMOX1 gene are ultimately controlled by the enhancing NFE2L2:MAFK dimer and the repressing BACH1:MAFK dimer, both of which are influenced by a multitude of processes. Less specific enhancement occurs via AP-1 (FOS:JUN) dimers (Funes et al, 2020).
HMOX1 activity depends on dimerization in the ER membrane. Its membrane localization is abandoned by cleavage of the membrane domain by HM13. The resulting soluble enzyme is found in the cytosol, mitochondria, and the nucleus (Schaefer et al, 2017).