Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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Carbonic anhydrases reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide and directly produce bicarbonate and protons, bypassing the formation of carbonic acid (reviewed in Lindskog 1997, Breton 2001, Esbaugh and Tufts 2006, Boron 2010, Gilmour 2010). Carbonic anhydrase deprotonates water to yield a zinc-hydroxyl group and a proton which is transferred to external buffer molecules via histidine or glutamate residues in carbonic anhydrase. The hydroxyl group reacts with carbon dioxide in the active site to yield bicarbonate. A water molecule displaces the bicarbonate and the reaction cycle begins again. There are currently 12 known active carbonic anhydrases in humans.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
19879980 Evaluating the role of carbonic anhydrases in the transport of HCO3--related species

Boron, WF

Biochim Biophys Acta 2010
20541618 Perspectives on carbonic anhydrase

Gilmour, KM

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2010
16679072 The structure and function of carbonic anhydrase isozymes in the respiratory system of vertebrates

Esbaugh, AJ, Tufts, BL

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2006
11875253 The cellular physiology of carbonic anhydrases

Breton, S

JOP 2001
9336012 Structure and mechanism of carbonic anhydrase

Lindskog, S

Pharmacol Ther 1997
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