Toxicity of botulinum toxin type D (botD)

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Clostridium botulinum
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Botulinum toxin type D (botD) is only very rarely associated with human disease (Hatheway 1995) and a pathway by which it might enter the circulation from the human gut has not been described. Nevertheless, the toxin itself, a disulfide-bonded heavy chain (HC) - light chain (LC) heterodimer (“dichain”), is capable of binding to neurons by interactions with cell surface ganglioside (Kroken et al. 2011) and synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) (Peng et al. 2011), the bound toxin can enter synaptic vesicles and release its LC moiety into the cytosol of targeted cells (Montal 2010), and the botD LC can cleave vesicle associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (VAMP1 and 2) on the cytosolic face of the synaptic vesicle membrane (Schiavo et al. 1993; Yamasaki et al. 1994). These four events are annotated here.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
20233039 Botulinum neurotoxin: a marvel of protein design

Montal, M

Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2010
8226912 Identification of the nerve terminal targets of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, D, and E

Polverino de Laureto, P, Schiavo, G, DasGupta, BR, Montecucco, C, Rossetto, O, Benfenati, F, Catsicas, S

J. Biol. Chem. 1993
8542759 Botulism: the present status of the disease

Hatheway, CL

Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 1995
21632541 Novel ganglioside-mediated entry of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D into neurons

Barbieri, JT, Kroken, AR, Kim, JJ, Fu, Z, Karalewitz, AP

J. Biol. Chem. 2011
21483489 Botulinum neurotoxin D uses synaptic vesicle protein SV2 and gangliosides as receptors

Tepp, WH, Dong, M, Peng, L, Johnson, EA

PLoS Pathog. 2011
8175689 Cleavage of members of the synaptobrevin/VAMP family by types D and F botulinal neurotoxins and tetanus toxin

Fykse, EM, Südhof, TC, Roques, B, Link, E, Yamasaki, S, Baumeister, A, Binz, T, Jahn, R, Cornille, F, Blasi, J

J Biol Chem 1994
Name Identifier Synonyms
botulism DOID:11976 Botulism (disorder), Intoxication with Clostridium botulinum toxin, Botulism, Infection due to clostridium botulinum, Botulism, Foodborne botulism, botulism, Botulism, Botulism, Botulism, Food poisoning due to Clostridium botulinum, Botulism poisoning
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