Establishment of Sister Chromatid Cohesion

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Homo sapiens
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The cohesin complex loads onto chromatin in telophase, but its association with chromatin remains transient, dynamic until the S-phase of the cell cycle, presumably because the cohesin-bound NIPBL:MAU2 (SCC2:SCC4) complex promotes chromatin loading, while cohesin-bound WAPAL promotes dissociation from chromatin. Stable binding of cohesin complexes to chromatin, measured by a mean residence time on chromatin, is triggered by DNA replication in S-phase (Gerlich et al. 2006), consistent with establishment of sister chromatid cohesion.

In S-phase, acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 acetylate the SMC3 cohesin subunit (Hou and Zou 2005, Zhang et al. 2008, Nishiyama et al. 2010, Whelan et al. 2012). The acetylation of SMC3, in addition to DNA replication and the presence of PDS5 on cohesin, facilitates the recruitment of CDCA5 (Sororin) to cohesin complexes, an essential step in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion in mammalian cells (Rankin et al. 2005, Nishiyama et al. 2010). CDCA5 (Sororin) displaces WAPAL from PDS5, thus preventing WAPAL to interfere with the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion (Nishiyama et al. 2010). The establishment and temporal regulation of sister chromatid cohesion is necessary for equal segregation of replicated chromosomes to daughter cells.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
15958495 Two human orthologues of Eco1/Ctf7 acetyltransferases are both required for proper sister-chromatid cohesion

Zou, H, Hou, F

Mol. Biol. Cell 2005
22101327 Cohesin acetyltransferase Esco2 is a cell viability factor and is required for cohesion in pericentric heterochromatin

Kreidl, E, Wutz, G, Peters, JM, Egner, A, Whelan, G, Eichele, G

EMBO J. 2012
15837422 Sororin, a substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex, is required for sister chromatid cohesion in vertebrates

Ayad, NG, Rankin, S, Kirschner, MW

Mol. Cell 2005
18614053 Acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1 is required for S phase sister chromatid cohesion in both human and yeast

Wang, Y, Zhang, J, Shi, X, Fu, X, Qin, J, Kim, ST, Jia, J, Kim, BJ, Pan, X, Huang, Z, Jung, SY, Li, Y, Zhang, P, Yang, T

Mol. Cell 2008
16890534 Live-cell imaging reveals a stable cohesin-chromatin interaction after but not before DNA replication

Peters, JM, Koch, B, Ellenberg, J, Gerlich, D, Dupeux, F

Curr. Biol. 2006
21111234 Sororin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by antagonizing Wapl

Kreidl, E, Ladurner, R, Hyman, AA, Peters, JM, Bando, M, Mechtler, K, Bhaskara, V, Schleiffer, A, Schmitz, J, Nishiyama, T, Shirahige, K

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