The DDIT3 (CHOP) gene is transcribed to yield mRNA and the mRNA is translated to yield protein (Bartlett et al. 1992, Carlson et al. 1993, Bruhat et al. 1997, Yoshida et al. 2000, Lee et al. 2008, Sikalidis et al. 2011). In response to amino acid starvation, transcription of DDIT3 s enhanced by ATF4 and phosphorylated ATF2 (Bruhat et al. 2000, Averous et al. 2004, Bruhat et al. 2007). In mouse, expression of Ddit3 is activated by DNA damage and by NF-Y and Atf4 in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.