The DDIT3 (CHOP) gene is transcribed to yield mRNA and the mRNA is translated to yield protein (Fornace et al. 1988, Wang et al. 1996, Ma et al. 2002). Expression of DDIT3 is activated by DNA damage (Fornace et al. 1988) and by NF-Y and ATF4 in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (Wang et al. 1996, Ma et al. 2002).