The Ddit3 (CHOP) gene is transcribed to yield mRNA and the mRNA is translated to yield protein (Marten et al. 1994, Fawcett et al. 1999). Expression of Ddit3 is enhanced by Atf4, which binds a composite CEBP-ATF element in the promoter of the Ddit3 (CHOP) gene (Fawcett et al. 1999).