Similar to other ions and metabolites, pyruvate (PYR) probably crosses the outer mitochondrial membrane through the relatively non-specific, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) (McCommis & Finck 2015). Humans with defective VDAC1 show impaired PYR oxidation and ATP production (Huizing et al. 1996).
ter Laak, HJ,
van den Heuvel, LP,
voltage-gated anion channel activity of VDAC1 [mitochondrial outer membrane]