PNPLA6 (Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 6, also known as NTE - Neuropathy target esterase) associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane catalyzes the hydrolysis of LysoPtcCho (lysophosphatidylcholine) to GPCho (glycerophosphocholine) and LCFA (long chain fatty acid). The subcellular location of the enzyme and its specificity have been established through studies of recombinant human enzyme (Li et al. 2003; Zaccheo et al. 2004). Additional studies in a mouse system indicate that enzyme abundance and activity are regulated by osmotic stress in the kidney (Gallazzini et al. 2006).