SLC31A1 transports Cu2+ from extracellular region to cytosol

Stable Identifier
Reaction [transition]
Homo sapiens
Cellular copper transport is mediated by human copper transporter 1 hCTR1
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Copper (Cu2+) is essential for many important biological processes such as mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, detoxification of free radicals, iron metabolism and neurotransmiter synthesis. Too much influx results in cell poisoning. In humans, there are two member of the SLC31 gene family that are implicated in copper transport. The human gene SLC31A1 encodes human copper transporter 1, hCTR1 and is ubiquitiously expressed, with highest levels seen in the liver.. It was first identified by functional complementation in ctr1-deficient yeast (Zhou B and Gitschier J, 1997). hCTR1 exists as a homotrimer at the plasma membrane of cells (De Feo CJ et al, 2007) and is responsible for high-affinity copper uptake (Lee J et al, 2002). The second gene product, hCTR2, has not be characterized yet.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
17211682 A structural perspective on copper uptake in eukaryotes

Unger, VM, De Feo, CJ, Aller, SG

Biometals 2007
11734551 Biochemical characterization of the human copper transporter Ctr1

Nose, Y, Peña, MM, Thiele, DJ, Lee, J

J Biol Chem 2002
9207117 hCTR1: a human gene for copper uptake identified by complementation in yeast

Zhou, B, Gitschier, J

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997
Catalyst Activity

copper ion transmembrane transporter activity of SLC31A1 [plasma membrane]

Orthologous Events
Cross References
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