PIAS3 SUMOylates RELA with SUMO3 at lysine-37, lysine-121, and lysine-122 (Liu et al. 2012, Hendriks et al. 2014). SUMOylation occurs when RELA is bound to NF-kB binding sites on DNA in the nucleus. SUMOylation represses transcriptional activity of RELA and is enhanced by NF-kB activation by TNFalpha.
Verlaan-de Vries, M,