Acyl Ghrelin and C-Ghrelin are secreted

Stable Identifier
Reaction [omitted]
Homo sapiens
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Fatty acids inhibit the secretion of ghrelin by an unknown mechanism. Fatty acids have less effect than carbohydrates do.

Acyl ghrelin and C-ghrelin are secreted from secretory granules into the bloodstream. Five forms of acyl ghrelin have been detected: octanoyl ghrelin-28, decanoyl ghrelin-28, octanoyl ghrelin-27, decanoyl ghrelin-27, and decenoyl ghrelin-28. Unacylated ghrelin (des-acyl ghrelin) occurs at higher levels than acyl ghrelin however its function and mechanism of generation are controversial. The function, if any, of C-ghrelin is also unknown.
Secretion of ghrelin is stimulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 and muscarinic agonists; Secretion is inhibited by insulin, somatotropin, leptin, glucose, glucagon, and fatty acids. Carbohydrates have more inhibitory effect than fat does. The mechanisms by which the regulation is effected are unknown.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
19280057 Ghrelin fluctuation, what determines its production?

Yin, X, Li, Y, Zhang, W, An, W, Xu, G

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2009
12354137 Ghrelin immunoreactivity in human plasma is suppressed by somatostatin

Møller, N, Weeke, J, Hansen, TK, Jørgensen, JO, Kangawa, K, Nørrelund, H, Christiansen, JS, Hosoda, H, Ørskov, H, Kojima, M

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002
17595255 Ghrelin and motilin are cosecreted from a prominent endocrine cell population in the small intestine

Sjölund, K, Björkqvist, M, Wierup, N, Sundler, F, Pierzynowski, S, Weström, B

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007
18396350 Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin: three pieces of the same puzzle

Soares, JB, Leite-Moreira, AF

Peptides 2008
12553549 Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, but not lipid infusion, decreases circulating ghrelin levels in humans

Ristow, M, Tschop, M, Pfeiffer, AF, Mohlig, M, Otto, B, Spranger, J

J Endocrinol Invest 2002
11089560 Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing acylated peptide, is synthesized in a distinct endocrine cell type in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans

Date, Y, Kangawa, K, Matsukura, S, Mondal, MS, Hosoda, H, Suganuma, T, Sawaguchi, A, Kojima, M, Nakazato, M

Endocrinology 2000
11756331 Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion

Hashiguchi, S, Arima, T, Date, Y, Matsukura, S, Kangawa, K, Mondal, MS, Yada, T, Hosoda, H, Matsuo, H, Kojima, M, Dezaki, K, Nakazato, M

Diabetes 2002
14599721 Differential effect of protein and fat on plasma ghrelin levels in man

Schusdziarra, V, Erdmann, J, Lippl, F

Regul Pept 2003
15126574 Acetylcholine regulates ghrelin secretion in humans

Destefanis, S, Gauna, C, Van Koetsveld, P, Broglio, F, Ghigo, E, Benso, A, Prodam, F, Arvat, E, Hofland, L, Gottero, C, van der Lely, AJ

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004
11600536 Stomach is a major source of circulating ghrelin, and feeding state determines plasma ghrelin-like immunoreactivity levels in humans

Toyooka, S, Nakao, K, Akamizu, T, Doi, K, Tagami, T, Ogawa, Y, Ariyasu, H, Hosoda, H, Takaya, K, Kojima, M, Shimatsu, A, Suda, M, Usui, T, Kangawa, K, Shirakami, G, Koh, T, Natsui, K, Hosoda, K

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001
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