As inferred from mouse, GLUT4 (SLC2A4) initially translocates from endosomes to insulin-responsive vesicles (IRVs, GSVs). RAB11 appears to play a role in this process. IRVs bearing GLUT4 are then translocated across the cortical actin network to the plasma membrane. Unconventional myosin 5A (MYO5A) interacts with RAB10 or RAB8A on the vesicle and participates in transport of the IRV. Myosin 1C appears to act close to the plasma membrane and may facilitate fusion of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. RAB:GTP complexes coupled to the vesicles may interact with myosins to regulate their activity. Non-muscle myosin IIA (MYH9) appears to interact with the SNAP23 complex to dock the IRV at the inner membrane face.
As inferred from mouse (Zeigerer et al. 2002) and rat (Uhlig et al. 2005), RAB11A enhances translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane by mobilizing GLUT4 (SLC2A4) from endosomes to insulin responsive vesicles.
As inferred from mouse (Sano et al. 2007) and rat (Ishikura et al. 2007, Ishikura and Klip 2008, Sun et al. 2010), RAB:GTP activates translocation of GLUT4 (SLC2A4) to the plasma membrane, possibly by interacting with myosins. RAB8A, RAB10, and RAB14 predominate in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; RAB13 predominates in L6 muscle cells.
As inferred from mouse, TC10 participates in the translocation and docking of GLUT4 (SLC2A4) vesicles at the plasma membrane (Chang et al. 2007).
As inferred from mouse (Ueda et al. 2008, Ueda et al. 2010) and rat (Chiu et al. 2010), RAC1:GTP enhances translocation of GLUT4 (SLC2A4) to the plasma membrane by causing actin remodeling that requires ARP2/3. The exact mechanism of RAC1 action is unknown.