Dimerization of FGFR2 point mutants with enhanced kinase activity

Stable Identifier
Reaction [transition]
Homo sapiens
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Several missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2 have been identified in Crouzon syndrome and similar craniosynostosis disorders (Kan, 2002; Cunningham, 2007). The N549H and K660N mutations are paralogous to FGFR3 N540K and K650N/E mutations identified in hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia II (Bellus, 2000). In FGFR3, these mutations have been demonstrated to have weak ligand-independent autophosphorylation and enhanced kinase activity mediated by disruption of a hydrogen-bonding network that holds the receptor in an inactive conformation (Chen, 2007; Bellus, 2000, Raffioni, 1998). Due to the highly conserved nature of these residues across all four FGF receptors, it is generally believed that these germline mutations in FGFR2 are also activating, though this remains to be demonstrated experimentally.

As further support of this notion, activating point mutations in the kinase domain of FGFR2 have also been identified in endometrial, uterine and cervical cancers (Pollock, 2007; Dutt, 2008), and in some cases have been shown to have enhanced kinase activity and to support anchorage-independent growth in NIH 3T3 cells (Dutt, 2008). Knockdown of N549K with short hairpin RNAs or the pan-FGFR inhibitor PD170734 inhibits cell survival in endometrial cancer cells lines, suggesting that FGFR2 activity is required for tumor cell survival (Dutt, 2008; Byron, 2008). Kinase-domain mutants show elevated levels of activity relative to the wild-type even in the absence of receptor phosphorylation, and although their kinase activity is further enhanced upon trans-autophosphorylation, the extent of this is less than that seen in the wild-type, suggesting that the mutant alleles are capable of of supporting ligand-independent activation (Chen, 2007)

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
18757403 Inhibition of activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in endometrial cancer cells induces cell death despite PTEN abrogation

Pollock, PM, Wellens, CL, Goodfellow, PJ, Gartside, MG, Mallon, MA, Powell, MA, Byron, SA, Keenan, JB

Cancer Res 2008
9857065 Effect of transmembrane and kinase domain mutations on fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 chimera signaling in PC12 cells. A model for the control of receptor tyrosine kinase activation

Thompson, LM, Raffioni, S, Bradshaw, RA, Zhu, YZ

J Biol Chem 1998
17525745 Frequent activating FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinomas parallel germline mutations associated with craniosynostosis and skeletal dysplasia syndromes

Futreal, PA, Pollock, PM, Goodfellow, PJ, Gartside, MG, Stratton, MR, Davies, H, Mallon, MA, Mohammadi, M, Dejeza, LC, Powell, MA, Trent, JM

Oncogene 2007
17552943 Syndromic craniosynostosis: from history to hydrogen bonds

Cunningham, ML, Heike, CL, Seto, ML, Hing, AV, Ratisoontorn, C

Orthod Craniofac Res 2007
17803937 A molecular brake in the kinase hinge region regulates the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases

Eliseenkova, AV, Miller, WT, Chen, H, Li, W, Mohammadi, M, Xu, C, Ma, J, Neubert, TA

Mol Cell 2007
18552176 Drug-sensitive FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinoma

Akslen, LA, Cibulskis, K, Greulich, H, Dutt, A, Sellers, WR, Chen, TH, Winckler, W, Wyhs, N, Ziaugra, L, Zody, MC, Salvesen, HB, Meyerson, M, Stefansson, IM, Trovik, J, Wong, KK, Ramos, AH, Richter, DJ, Gabriel, S, Nicoletti, R, Onofrio, RC, Grewal, R, Hanna, M, Hatton, C, Engelsen, IB, Fennell, T

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008
11781872 Genomic screening of fibroblast growth-factor receptor 2 reveals a wide spectrum of mutations in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis

Elanko, N, Rannan-Eliya, S, Muenke, M, Tomkins, S, Reich, EW, Twigg, SR, Zackai, EH, Verloes, A, McDonald-McGinn, DM, Wall, SA, Johnson, D, Cook, J, Kan, SH, Wilkie, AO, Cornejo-Roldan, L

Am J Hum Genet 2002
11055896 Distinct missense mutations of the FGFR3 lys650 codon modulate receptor kinase activation and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia phenotype

Francomano, CA, Spector, EB, Bellus, GA, Garber, AT, Israel, J, Bryke, CR, Speiser, PW, Donoghue, DJ, Weaver, CA, Webster, MK, Rosengren, SS

Am J Hum Genet 2000
Functional status

Gain of function of FGFR2 mutants with enhanced kinase activity [plasma membrane]

Disease Entity
Name Identifier Synonyms
cancer DOID:162 malignant tumor, malignant neoplasm, primary cancer
bone development disease DOID:0080006
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