ERKs are inactivated

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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MAP Kinases are inactivated by a family of protein named MAP Kinase Phosphatases (MKPs). They act through dephosphorylation of threonine and/or tyrosine residues within the signature sequence -pTXpY- located in the activation loop of MAP kinases (pT=phosphothreonine and pY=phosphotyrosine). MKPs are divided into three major categories depending on their preference for dephosphorylating; tyrosine, serine/threonine and both the tyrosine and threonine (dual specificity phoshatases or DUSPs). The tyrosine-specific MKPs include PTP-SL, STEP and HePTP, serine/threonine-specific MKPs are PP2A and PP2C, and many DUSPs acting on MAPKs are known. Activated MAP kinases trigger activation of transcription of MKP genes. Therefore, MKPs provide a negative feedback regulatory mechanism on MAPK signaling, by inactivating MAPKs via dephosphorylation, in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Some MKPs are more specific for ERKs, others for JNK or p38MAPK.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
15115656 Structure and regulation of MAPK phosphatases

Farooq, A, Zhou, MM

Cell Signal 2004
17322878 A module of negative feedback regulators defines growth factor signaling

Siwak, D, Jacob-Hirsch, J, Lu, Y, Amit, I, Tarcic, G, Segal, E, Zhang, F, Shay, T, Vaisman, N, Yarden, Y, Domany, E, Amariglio, N, Mills, GB, Alon, U, Rechavi, G, Katz, M, Lahad, J, Citri, A

Nat Genet 2007
Orthologous Events
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