Expression of APOD regulated by NR1H2 or NR1H3

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-9657767
Type
Reaction [uncertain]
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
Locations in the PathwayBrowser
General
SVG |   | PPTX  | SBGN
Click the image above or here to open this reaction in the Pathway Browser
The layout of this reaction may differ from that in the pathway view due to the constraints in pathway layout

The apolipoprotein D (APOD) gene is transcribed to yield mRNA and the mRNA is translated to yield protein. APOD is an atypical apolipoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin family, and is expressed by a wide variety of cells and tissues (Drayna D et al. 1986). The liver X receptor α (LXRα, NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) were found to regulate the expression of the APOD gene in cultured cells and in vivo (Hummasti S et al. 2004; Lai C-J et al. 2017). Synthetic LXR agonist treatment of mouse adipocytes (3T3-L1 cells) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of APOD (Hummasti S et al. 2004; Lai C-J et al. 2017). An LXR response element (LXRE) was identified in the human APOD gene promoter, and binding of LXRα (NR1H3):RXRa heterodimers was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and luciferase cell reporter assay (Hummasti S et al. 2004). Mice treated with synthetic LXR agonists exhibited increased APOD mRNA levels in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and cerebellum, but not liver (Hummasti S et al. 2004; Repa JJ et al. 2007). In humans, APOD is found in the plamsa, associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and polymorphisms have been linked to metabolic disease. APOD has also been suggested to be neuroprotective (Pascua-Maestro R et al 2019).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
14703507 Liver X receptors are regulators of adipocyte gene expression but not differentiation: identification of apoD as a direct target

Hummasti, S, Laffitte, BA, Watson, MA, Galardi, C, Chao, LC, Ramamurthy, L, Moore, JT, Tontonoz, P

J. Lipid Res. 2004
28842423 Activation of liver X receptor suppresses angiogenesis via induction of ApoD

Lai, CJ, Cheng, HC, Lin, CY, Huang, SH, Chen, TH, Chung, CJ, Chang, CH, Wang, HD, Chuu, CP

FASEB J. 2017
Participants
Participant Of
This event is regulated
Authored
Reviewed
Created
Cite Us!