At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, 1-acyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is acylated to phosphatidic acid (PA) by the enzymes 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (AGPAT1 through 11), and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT1) (Aguado and Campbell 1998).
See recent review by Agarwal (2012, in press).
AGPAT1, 2, 3 and LPCAT1 have been characterized biochemically (AGPAT1, 2: Yamashita et al. 2007, West et al. 1997, Aguado and Campbell 1998, Gale et al. 2006; AGPAT3: Agarwal et al. 2006; LPCAT1: Nakanishi et al. 2006, Chen et al. 2006). Two additional proteins, AGPAT4 and AGPAT5, are inferred to have such activity based on studies of homologous mouse enzymes (Lu et al. 2005). These enzymes differ in their tissue specific patterns of expression in the body and in their preferences for specific acyl CoA molecules (Shindou and Shimizu 2009; Takeuchi and Reue 2009).