Phospho R-SMAD(SMAD2,3):CO-SMAD(SMAD4):FOXH1 binds Activin Response Element

Stable Identifier
Reaction [binding]
Homo sapiens
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As inferred from mouse, DRAP1 binds FOXH1 and inhibits activation of gene expression in response to NODAL signaling. SMAD2 and SMAD3 do not bind DNA efficiently. They must interact with DNA-binding proteins to activate transcription. FOXH1 interacts with phospho-SMAD2 and phospho-SMAD3 complexed with CO-SMAD (SMAD4) at promoters containing the Activin Response Element (Zhou et al. 1998, Yanagisawa et al. 2000, inferred from Xenopus in Chen et al. 1996, Chen et al. 1997, Yeo et al. 1999). Follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHB) and the Lim1 homeobox gene (LXH1) are examples of genes regulated by Activin.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
10473623 The role of FAST-1 and Smads in transcriptional regulation by activin during early Xenopus embryogenesis

Yeo, CY, Chen, X, Whitman, M

J. Biol. Chem. 1999
9288972 Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive factor

Weisberg, E, Watanabe, M, Fridmacher, V, Naco, G, Chen, X, Whitman, M

Nature 1997
10822381 Heterogeneities in the biological and biochemical functions of Smad2 and Smad4 mutants naturally occurring in human lung cancers

Sugiyama, M, Uchida, K, Takahashi, T, Masuda, A, Yamaki, K, Saito, T, Osada, H, Nagatake, M, Yanagisawa, K

Oncogene 2000
9702198 Characterization of human FAST-1, a TGF beta and activin signal transducer

Zawel, L, Zhou, S, Kinzler, KW, Vogelstein, B, Lengauer, C

Mol Cell 1998
8878477 A transcriptional partner for MAD proteins in TGF-beta signalling

Rubock, MJ, Chen, X, Whitman, M

Nature 1996
This event is regulated
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