R HSA 212165

New and Updated Topics and Pathways. Topics with new or revised pathways in this release include Autophagy (Mitophagy), Cell Cycle (Meiotic recombination and Resolution of sister chromatid cohesion); Developmental Biology (MITF-M-regulation melanocyte development); DNA Repair (Resolution of D-loop structures through Holliday Junction Intermediates); Gene Expression (Regulation of endogenous retroelements); Immune System (SLC15A4:TASL-dependent IRF5 activation); Metabolism (Aerobic respiration and respiratory electron transport including Respiratory electron transport, Complex I biogenesis, Complex III assembly, and Complex IV assembly; Mitochondrial uncoupling; Fatty acyl-CoA biosynthesis; Endogenous sterols; Synthesis of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, Ubiquinol biosynthesis; OADH complex synthesizes glutaryl-CoA from 2-OA; BCKDH synthesizes BCAA-CoA from KIC, KMVA, KIV, Metabolism of proteins (Synthesis of GDP-mannose), and Signal Transduction (TGFBR3 signaling).

New and Updated Illustrations.  New or revised illustrations with embedded navigation features have been created for Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, and Signaling by TGFB family members.

Thanks to our Contributors. Deborah Bourc'his, Ivana de la Serna, Liane P Fernandes, Leonhard X Heinz, David P Hill, Christian Löw, Marco Marchi, Alexandre Orthwein, Fabien Pierrel, Fiorella Tonello, Noriko Toyama-Sorimachi, and Mark Williams are our external reviewers.

Annotation Statistics. Reactome comprises 15,326  human reactions organized into 2,711  pathways involving 30,733  proteins and modified forms of proteins encoded by 11,279 different human genes, 14,897 complexes, 2,127 small molecules, and 1,047 drugs. These annotations are supported by 38,895 literature references. We have projected these reactions onto 79,737  orthologous proteins, creating 19,657 orthologous pathways in 14 non-human species. Version 89 has annotations for 4,857 protein variants (mutated proteins) and their post-translationally modified forms, derived from 376 proteins, which have contributed to the annotation of 1,802 disease-specific reactions and  725 pathways. 


Tools and Data. Our services and software tools are designed for biologists, bioinformaticians, and software developers. Pathway data is available to view in our Pathway Browser, to analyze your own dataset, to download, and access programmatically through our Content and Analysis Services. The ReactomeFIViz app and ReactomeGSA package provide tools for multi-omics data analysis. The idg.reactome.org Web Portal provides a collection of web-based tools to help researchers place understudied proteins in a pathway context. 

Documentation and Training. Visit our online User Guide to access documentation supporting pathway analysis of experimental data. The Developer's Zone provides detailed documentation regarding our software, tools, and web services. Training and learning materials can be found here.

About the Reactome Project. Reactome is a collaboration between groups at the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Oregon Health and Science University, New York University Langone Medical Center, and The EMBL - European Bioinformatics Institute. Reactome is an ELIXIR Core Data Resource as well as a Global Core Biodata Resource. Reactome annotation files and interaction data derived from Reactome are distributed under a Creative Commons Public Domain (CC0 1.0 Universal) Licence. A Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence applies to all software and code, database data dumps, and Pathway Illustrations (Enhanced High-Level Diagrams), Icon Library, Art, and Branding Materials. A full description of the new and updated content is available on the Reactome website.

Follow us on Twitter: @reactome to get frequent updates about new and updated pathways, feature updates, and more!

For more information: If you have a question, want to provide feedback, or are interested in collaborating with us to annotate a topic, please contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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