Cytokine Signaling in Immune System

R HSA 1280215

New and Updated Topics and Pathways. In V83, Topics with new or revised pathways include Developmental Biology (Formation of axial mesoderm, Formation of lateral plate mesoderm, Formation of paraxial mesoderm), Immune System (Signaling by CSF1 (M-CSF) in myeloid cells), Metabolism (Gluconeogenesis), Metabolism of proteins (Insulin processing), Metabolism of RNA (mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway), Programmed Cell Death (Regulation of necroptotic cell death), Signal Transduction (Regulation of TNFR1 signaling, TNFR1-induced NFkappaB signaling pathway, and TNFR1-induced proapoptotic signaling), and Transport of small molecules (Zinc efflux and compartmentalization by the SLC30 family).  In continuing our collaborative drug annotation work  with Caroline Thorn and PharmGKB,  we have added the pathway Ciprofloxacin ADME under the topic of Drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) pathways. 

New and Updated Illustrations. Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, Diseases of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair, Disorders of Nervous System Development, Drug ADME, Gastrulation, GPCR downstream signalling, Loss of function of MECP2 in Rett syndrome, Pervasive developmental disorders, Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, and SUMOylation have a new or revised Illustration with embedded navigation features. 

Thanks to our Contributors.   E Richard Stanley is our external author.  Ravindrababu Chalamalasetty, Clément Charenton, David P Hill, Christian Mosimann, James M Murphy, Karin Prummel, Hiroshi Sasaki, E Richard Stanley, Hailin Tu, and Terry P Yamaguchi are our external reviewers.

Annotation Statistics. Reactome comprises 14,471 human reactions organized into 2,610 pathways involving 30,656 proteins and modified forms of proteins encoded by 11,442 different human genes, 14,153  complexes, 2,002 small molecules, and 1,113 drugs. These annotations are supported by 36,290 literature references. We have projected these reactions onto 83,933 orthologous proteins, creating 19,417 orthologous pathways in 14 non-human species. Version 83 has annotations for 4,977 protein variants (mutated proteins) and their post-translationally modified forms, derived from 361 proteins, which have contributed to the annotation of 1,659 disease-specific reactions and 704 pathways. 

 Tools and Data. Our services and software tools are designed for biologists, bioinformaticians, and software developers. Pathway data is available to view in our Pathway Browser, to analyze your own dataset, to download, and access programmatically through our Content and Analysis Services. The ReactomeFIViz app and ReactomeGSA package provides tools for multi-omics data analysis. The Web Portal provides a collection of web-based tools to help researchers place understudied proteins in a pathway context. 

Documentation and Training. Visit our online User Guide to access documentation supporting pathway analysis of experimental data. The Developer's Zone provides detailed documentation regarding our software, tools, and web services. Training and learning materials can be found here.

About the Reactome Project. Reactome is a collaboration between groups at the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Oregon Health and Science University, New York University Langone Medical Center, and The EMBL - European Bioinformatics Institute. Reactome is an ELIXIR Core Data Resource. Reactome annotation files and interaction data derived from Reactome are distributed under a Creative Commons Public Domain (CC0 1.0 Universal) Licence. A Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence applies to all software and code, database data dumps, and Pathway Illustrations (Enhanced High-Level Diagrams), Icon Library, Art and Branding Materials. A full description of the new and updated content is available on the Reactome website.

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For more information: If you have a question, want to provide feedback, or are interested in collaborating with us to annotate a topic, please contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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