SARS-CoV-2 Infection

SARS COV 2 Infection

New and Updated Topics and Pathways. In V82, Topics with new or revised pathways include Developmental Biology (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition during gastrulation and Germ layer formation at gastrulation), Disease-SARS-CoV-1 Infection (SARS-CoV-1-host interactions),  Disease-SARS-CoV-2 Infection (Induction of Cell-Cell FusionMaturation of nucleoproteinMaturation of protein EMaturation of protein MMaturation of Spike protein and  Translation of Accessory Proteins, Gene expression (Transcriptional Regulation by NPAS4), Metabolism (HS-GAG degradationKeratan sulfate degradation, and Transport and synthesis of PAPS), and Signal Transduction (Regulation of TNFR1 signaling and TNF signaling). In continuing our collaborative drug annotation work with Caroline Thorn and PharmGKB,  we have added the pathways  Prednisone ADME and  Ribavirin ADME under the topic of Drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) pathways. 

New and Updated Illustrations. Drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME)GastrulationSARS-CoV-2 infection,  SUMOylation, and  SUMO E3 ligases SUMOylate target proteins have a new or revised Illustration with embedded navigation features. The updated SARS-CoV-2 illustration featured above highlights the recent partitioning of the pathway into early and late subpathways based on our growing understanding of the life cycle of this virus.

Thanks to our Contributors.    David Hill,  Yingxi LinRainer de MartinCaroline Thorn, and Hailin Tu are our external reviewers.

Annotation Statistics. Reactome comprises 14398  human reactions organized into 2601 pathways involving 11393  proteins and modified forms of proteins encoded by 11097 different human genes, 14084  complexes, 1998 small molecules, and 1035 drugs. These annotations are supported by 35965 literature references. We have projected these reactions onto 83288 orthologous proteins, creating  19385 orthologous pathways in 15 non-human species. Version 82 has annotations for 4977  protein variants (mutated proteins) and their post-translationally modified forms, derived from 352 proteins, which have contributed to the annotation of 1659 disease-specific reactions and 704 pathways.

Tools and Data. Our services and software tools are designed for biologists, bioinformaticians, and software developers. Pathway data is available to view in our Pathway Browser, to analyze your own dataset, to download, and access programmatically through our Content and  Services. The ReactomeFIViz app and ReactomeGSA package provides tools for multi-omics data analysis. The idg.reactome.org Web Portal provides a collection of web-based tools to help researchers place understudied proteins in a pathway context. 

Documentation and Training. Visit our online User Guide to access documentation supporting pathway analysis of experimental data. The Developer's Zone provides detailed documentation regarding our software, tools, and web services. Training and learning materials can be found here.

About the Reactome Project. Reactome is a collaboration between groups at the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Oregon Health and Science University, New York University Langone Medical Center, and The EMBL - European Bioinformatics Institute. Reactome is an ELIXIR Core Data Resource. Reactome annotation files and interaction data derived from Reactome are distributed under a Creative Commons Public Domain (CC0 1.0 Universal) Licence. A Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Licence applies to all software and code, database data dumps, and Pathway Illustrations (Enhanced High-Level Diagrams), Icon Library, Art and Branding Materials. A full description of the new and updated content is available on the Reactome website.

Follow us on Twitter: @reactome to get frequent updates about new and updated pathways, feature updates, and more!

For more information: If you have a question, want to provide feedback, or are interested in collaborating with us to annotate a topic, please contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Cite Us!