The Ddit3 mRNA is translated to yield Ddit3 (CHOP) protein (Palam et al. 2011, Young et al. 2016, Zhang et al. 2019), which is then imported into the nucleus. The mRNA of Ddit3 contains an upstream ORF (uORF) which has a start codon in an unfavorable context (Palam et al. 2011), resulting in low expression of the downstream Ddit3 coding region. When Eif2s1 (Eif2-alpha) is phosphorylated in response to stress, translation of the uORF is suppressed and translation of Ddit3 is increased (Palam et al. 2011, Young et al. 2016, Zhang et al. 2019).