Hoxd1 chromatin is activated

Stable Identifier
Reaction [omitted]
Mus musculus
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Hoxd1 chromatin is activated

Hoxd1 is not expressed in hindbrain of embryos. Expression of Hoxd1 begins at E8.5 in caudal lateral mesoderm (Pitera et al. 2001). At E9.5 to E11.5 Hoxd1 expression is observed in prosomeres p2 and p3 of the diencephalon, dermatomes, urogenital tubercle, gut endoderm, and tail bud (Wolf et al. 2001, Pitera et al. 2001). Expression is inducible by retinoic acid in embryos (Pitera et al. 2001) and embryonic stem cells (Mazzoni et al. 2013), however it is unknown if the induction is direct or indirect. NGF induces Hoxd1 in nociceptors (Guo et al. 2011).
In embryonic stem cells treated with retinoic acid the activation of Hoxd1 chromatin is accompanied by loss of methylation at lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) and loss of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) (Mazzoni et al. 2013). As observed at other Hox genes, gain of histone acetylation and gain of methylation at histone H3K4 may also occur. The Mll2 complex methylates H3K4 in fibroblasts (Wang et al. 2009). Like other Hox gene clusters, the Hoxd cluster changes position relative to other loci in the nucleus during activtion (Williamson et al. 2014, Lonfat and Duboule 2015).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
19703992 Global analysis of H3K4 methylation defines MLL family member targets and points to a role for MLL1-mediated H3K4 methylation in the regulation of transcriptional initiation by RNA polymerase II

Ge, K, Gogol, M, Wiedemann, LM, Seidel, C, Guo, H, Smith, ER, Alexander, T, Sanderson, BW, Lin, C, Wang, P, Wu, M, Shilatifard, A, Krumlauf, R

Mol. Cell. Biol. 2009
25913784 Structure, function and evolution of topologically associating domains (TADs) at HOX loci

Duboule, D, Lonfat, N

FEBS Lett. 2015
11731253 Cloning of HOXD1 from unfertilised human oocytes and expression analyses during murine oogenesis and embryogenesis

Adjaye, J, Scambler, P, Milla, PJ, Pitera, JE

Mech. Dev. 2001
11209945 Coordinated expression of Hoxa2, Hoxd1 and Pax6 in the developing diencephalon

Doucette, JR, Yeung, JM, Wolf, LV, Nazarali, AJ

Neuroreport 2001
25512564 Spatial genome organization: contrasting views from chromosome conformation capture and fluorescence in situ hybridization

Berlivet, S, Eskeland, R, Bickmore, WA, Paquette, D, Williamson, I, Illingworth, RS, Dostie, J, Boyle, S

Genes Dev. 2014
21151121 An evolving NGF-Hoxd1 signaling pathway mediates development of divergent neural circuits in vertebrates

Guo, T, Ginty, DD, Wickramasinghe, SR, Capecchi, MR, Mandai, K, Condie, BG

Nat. Neurosci. 2011
23955559 Saltatory remodeling of Hox chromatin in response to rostrocaudal patterning signals

Boyer, LA, Thornton, SR, Gifford, DK, Young, RA, McCuine, S, Mazzoni, EO, Patel, T, Peljto, M, Wichterle, H, Reeder, C, Mahony, S

Nat. Neurosci. 2013
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