Hoxd3 chromatin is activated

Stable Identifier
Reaction [omitted]
Mus musculus
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Hoxd3 chromatin is activated

Retinoic acid induces expression of Hoxd3 in embryos (Folberg et al. 1999) and fetal cortical neurons (Chai et al. 2009), but it is unknown if the effect is direct or indirect. The retinoid receptor Rarb is not responsible for the inducibility in embryos (Folberg et al. 1999). Hoxd3 is expressed in rhombomeres 5,6, and 7 (r5-7) (Tan et al. 1996, Gaufo et al. 2003) and in more caudal regions: the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, first cervical vertebrae, thyroid gland, kidney tublules, esophagus, stomach, and intestines (Tan et al. 1996).
In mouse embryonic stem cells treated with retinoic acid Hoxd3 chromatin is activated by loss of methylation at lysine-27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) and loss of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) (Williamson et al. 2012, Mazzoni et al. 2013). In human fibroblasts, the histone demethylase KDM6A participates in removing H3K27me3. The Mll2 complex methylates H3K4 at Hoxd3 in fibroblasts (Wang et al. 2009).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
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Mol. Cell. Biol. 2009
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Thomas, KR, Gaufo, GO, Capecchi, MR

Development 2003
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Pu, L, Nirenberg, M, Shao, X, Guo, V, Tan, DP

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996
22872084 Anterior-posterior differences in HoxD chromatin topology in limb development

Eskeland, R, Hill, AE, Bickmore, WA, Lettice, LA, Grimes, GR, Williamson, I, Hill, RE, Boyle, S

Development 2012
19472184 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent regulation of SRC-3 and involvement in retinoic acid receptor alpha signaling in embryonic cortical neurons

Zheng, X, Chai, Z, He, Q, Yu, B, Zhou, R, Xie, J, Zhang, T, Yang, L, Li, WI

IUBMB Life 2009
10373014 RARbeta mediates the response of Hoxd4 and Hoxb4 to exogenous retinoic acid

Featherstone, MS, Giguère, V, Folberg, A, Nagy Kovács, E, Luo, J

Dev. Dyn. 1999
23955559 Saltatory remodeling of Hox chromatin in response to rostrocaudal patterning signals

Boyer, LA, Thornton, SR, Gifford, DK, Young, RA, McCuine, S, Mazzoni, EO, Patel, T, Peljto, M, Wichterle, H, Reeder, C, Mahony, S

Nat. Neurosci. 2013
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