Tet1,2,3 oxidizes 5-hydroxymethylcytosine to 5-formylcytosine

Stable Identifier
R-MMU-5220931
Type
Reaction [transition]
Species
Mus musculus
Compartment
General
SVG |   | PPTX  | SBGN
Tet1,2,3 oxidizes 5-hydroxymethylcytosine to 5-formylcytosine

Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 each catalyze the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in DNA using molecular oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate to yield 5-formylcytosine (5-fC), carbon dioxide, and succinate (He et al. 2011, Ito et al. 2011, Crawford et al. 2016). 5-fC is present at lower levels than 5-hmC in the genome and is concentrated at CpG islands of transcriptionally active genes (Raiber et al.2012), transcriptionally poised enhancers (Song et al. 2013) and major satellite repeats (Shen et al. 2013). 5-fC is generated in zygotes and its persistence indicates it may be passively removed by dilution during DNA replication (Inoue et al. 2011).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
22124233 Generation and replication-dependent dilution of 5fC and 5caC during mouse preimplantation development

Inoue, A, Shen, L, Dai, Q, He, C, Zhang, Y

Cell Res. 2011
21817016 Tet-mediated formation of 5-carboxylcytosine and its excision by TDG in mammalian DNA

He, YF, Li, BZ, Li, Z, Liu, P, Wang, Y, Tang, Q, Ding, J, Jia, Y, Chen, Z, Li, L, Sun, Y, Li, X, Dai, Q, Song, CX, Zhang, K, He, C, Xu, GL

Science 2011
23602152 Genome-wide analysis reveals TET- and TDG-dependent 5-methylcytosine oxidation dynamics

Shen, L, Wu, H, Diep, D, Yamaguchi, S, D'Alessio, AC, Fung, HL, Zhang, K, Zhang, Y

Cell 2013
26734843 Tet2 Catalyzes Stepwise 5-Methylcytosine Oxidation by an Iterative and de novo Mechanism

Crawford, DJ, Liu, MY, Nabel, CS, Cao, XJ, Garcia, BA, Kohli, RM

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016
21778364 Tet proteins can convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine

Ito, S, Shen, L, Dai, Q, Wu, SC, Collins, LB, Swenberg, JA, He, C, Zhang, Y

Science 2011
22902005 Genome-wide distribution of 5-formylcytosine in embryonic stem cells is associated with transcription and depends on thymine DNA glycosylase

Raiber, EA, Beraldi, D, Ficz, G, Burgess, HE, Branco, MR, Murat, P, Oxley, D, Booth, MJ, Reik, W, Balasubramanian, S

Genome Biol. 2012
23602153 Genome-wide profiling of 5-formylcytosine reveals its roles in epigenetic priming

Song, CX, Szulwach, KE, Dai, Q, Fu, Y, Mao, SQ, Lin, L, Street, C, Li, Y, Poidevin, M, Wu, H, Gao, J, Liu, P, Li, L, Xu, GL, Jin, P, He, C

Cell 2013
Participants
Event Information
Catalyst Activity
Catalyst Activity
Title
methylcytosine dioxygenase activity of Tet1,2,3 [nucleoplasm]
Physical Entity
Activity
Orthologous Events
Authored
Reviewed
Created
Cite Us!