Tet1,2,3 oxidizes 5-hydroxymethylcytosine to 5-formylcytosine

Stable Identifier
Reaction [transition]
Mus musculus
SVG |   | PPTX  | SBGN
Tet1,2,3 oxidizes 5-hydroxymethylcytosine to 5-formylcytosine

Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 each catalyze the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in DNA using molecular oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate to yield 5-formylcytosine (5-fC), carbon dioxide, and succinate (He et al. 2011, Ito et al. 2011, Crawford et al. 2016). 5-fC is present at lower levels than 5-hmC in the genome and is concentrated at CpG islands of transcriptionally active genes (Raiber et al.2012), transcriptionally poised enhancers (Song et al. 2013) and major satellite repeats (Shen et al. 2013). 5-fC is generated in zygotes and its persistence indicates it may be passively removed by dilution during DNA replication (Inoue et al. 2011).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
23602152 Genome-wide analysis reveals TET- and TDG-dependent 5-methylcytosine oxidation dynamics

Diep, D, Fung, HL, Wu, H, Shen, L, Zhang, K, Yamaguchi, S, D'Alessio, AC, Zhang, Y

Cell 2013
23602153 Genome-wide profiling of 5-formylcytosine reveals its roles in epigenetic priming

Mao, SQ, Jin, P, Street, C, Lin, L, Song, CX, Li, Y, Liu, P, Szulwach, KE, Gao, J, Fu, Y, Li, L, Wu, H, Poidevin, M, Dai, Q, He, C, Xu, GL

Cell 2013
22124233 Generation and replication-dependent dilution of 5fC and 5caC during mouse preimplantation development

Shen, L, Dai, Q, Zhang, Y, He, C, Inoue, A

Cell Res. 2011
22902005 Genome-wide distribution of 5-formylcytosine in embryonic stem cells is associated with transcription and depends on thymine DNA glycosylase

Burgess, HE, Branco, MR, Reik, W, Beraldi, D, Balasubramanian, S, Murat, P, Ficz, G, Booth, MJ, Oxley, D, Raiber, EA

Genome Biol. 2012
21817016 Tet-mediated formation of 5-carboxylcytosine and its excision by TDG in mammalian DNA

Li, BZ, Tang, Q, Sun, Y, Jia, Y, Li, X, Chen, Z, Song, CX, Wang, Y, Li, Z, Liu, P, Zhang, K, Ding, J, Li, L, Dai, Q, Xu, GL, He, C, He, YF

Science 2011
21778364 Tet proteins can convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine

Shen, L, Ito, S, Dai, Q, Zhang, Y, He, C, Wu, SC, Swenberg, JA, Collins, LB

Science 2011
26734843 Tet2 Catalyzes Stepwise 5-Methylcytosine Oxidation by an Iterative and de novo Mechanism

Garcia, BA, Crawford, DJ, Kohli, RM, Liu, MY, Cao, XJ, Nabel, CS

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016
Event Information
Catalyst Activity

methylcytosine dioxygenase activity of Tet1,2,3 [nucleoplasm]

Orthologous Events
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