Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular bacteria or tumor-associated antigens. They bind peptide fragments of these proteins and presenting them to CD8+ T cells at the cell surface. This enables cytotoxic T cells to identify and eliminate cells that are synthesizing abnormal or foreign proteins. MHC class I is a trimeric complex composed of a polymorphic heavy chain (HC or alpha chain) and an invariable light chain, known as beta2-microglobulin (B2M) plus an 8-10 residue peptide ligand. Represented here are the events in the biosynthesis of MHC class I molecules, including generation of antigenic peptides by the ubiquitin/26S-proteasome system, delivery of these peptides to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), loading of peptides to MHC class I molecules and display of MHC class I complexes on the cell surface.