NPAS4 translocates to the nucleus

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-9769143
Type
Reaction [omitted]
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
ReviewStatus
5/5
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Based on one study in cell lines overexpressing the rat protein, whose amino acid sequence is 93% identical to the human protein, NPAS4 possesses an overlapping nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES) in its basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain, two putative NLSs and one NES in its PAS-2 domain, and two active NESs that overlap with a putative NLS in its C-terminus (Greb-Markiewicz et al. 2018). NPAS4 mainly localizes to the nucleus, but a small portion is also present in the cytoplasm and intracellular membranes (Shamloo et al. 2006, Sullivan et al. 2016). The predominant nuclear localization of NPAS4 is especially favored under high-glucose conditions (Greb-Markiewicz et al. 2018). All the studies cited in this section are conducted in vitro using cell lines, in which over-expressed, not endogenous, NPAS4 protein was analyzed.
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