Stress factors damage and misfold cilia proteins, which are then translocated to the cytosol. Here, they are ubiquitinated via the UBE2N:UBE2V1:Parkin complex. The E3 ligase Parkin recruits the misfolded proteins to the E2 ubiquitin conjugation complex. This results in the polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins targeting them to degradation (Olzmann JA et al. 2007).