Studies of the VGF promoter have identified a number of consensus sites in a minimal 110 bp promoter spanning -180 to -70 upstream of the transcriptional start site (D'Arcangelo et al, 1996; Possenti et al, 1992; Mandolesi et al, 2002). These sites, which include an E-box, a CCAAT site, a CRE element and a G(S)G site, are required for NGF-responsive transcription in neuronal cells (Possenti et al, 1992; D'Arcangelo et al, 1996; Mandolesi et al, 2002). The E box and CCAAT elements are bound by TCF12 (also known as HEB) and ASCL1 (also known as MASH1) to weakly stimulate trancriptional activity (Di Rocco et al, 1997; Mandolesi et al, 2002). The CRE is bound by phosphorylated CREB and by members of the ATF family . CRE binding is facilitated through protein-protein interactions with an unidentified CCAAT-binding factor (Di Rocco et al, 1997; D'Arcangelo et al, 1996; Mandolesi et al, 2002). The CREB:ASCL1 complex also includes the histone acetyltransferase p300 (Mandolesi et al, 2002; Adams et al, 2017).