The duration of NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal transmission can be limited by binding of the activated calmodulin to the activated NMDA receptor. In addition to shortening the NMDA channel pore open state, calmodulin interferes with ACTN2-mediated anchoring of NMDA receptors to the postsynaptic density (Ehlers et al. 1996, Wyszynski et al. 1997). Protein phosphatases PPM1E and PPM1F dephosphorylate activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), thus halting CaMK-mediated signaling (Ishida, Okuno et al. 1998, Ishida et al. 1998, Kitani et al. 2003).