In Human, IKKs - IkB kinase (IKK) complex serves as the master regulator for the activation of NF-kB by various stimuli. It contains two catalytic subunits, IKK alpha and IKK beta, and a regulatory subunit, IKKgamma/NEMO. The activation of IKK complex and NFkB mediated antiviral responce are dependent on the phosphorylation of IKK alpha/beta at its activation loop and the ubiquitination of NEMO.[Solt et al 2009]; [Li et al 2002]. NEMO ubiquitination by TRAF6 is required for optimal activation of IKKalpha/beta; it's remained unclear if NEMO subunit undergoes K63-linked or linear ubiquitination.This basic trimolecular complex is referred to as the IKK complex. Each catalytic IKK subunit has a N-term kinase domain a leucine zipper (LZ) motifs, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) and a C-ter NEMO binding domain (NBD). IKK catalytic subunits are dimerized through their LZ motifs.IKK beta is the major IKK catalytic subunit for NF-kB activation. MEKK1 can activate both IKK-alpha (IKKA) and IKK-beta (IKKB) in vivo. MEKK1 phosphorylates Ser-176 and Ser-180 in IKKA and Ser-177 and Ser-181 in IKKB activation loop and thus activate the IKK kinase activity, leading to the IkB alpha phosphorylation and NF-kB activation.
MAP kinase kinase kinase activity of dsRNA:RIG-I/MDA5:IPS-1:TRAF2/TRAF6:MEKK1 [mitochondrial outer membrane]