ARC gene expression

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Homo sapiens
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The neuronal activity regulated cytoskeletal gene (ARC) is an immediate early gene that has roles in memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation and depression (Plath et al, 2006; Mesaoudi et al, 2007; reviewed in Epstein and Finkbeiner, 2018). ARC was identified as a gene induced by seizures in the hippocampus, and is activated downstream of signaling pathways such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), NTRK and NMDA receptors in response to synaptic activity (Link et al, 1995; Lyford et al, 1995; Steward et al, 2001; Teber et al, 2004; Pintchovski et al, 2009). These receptors initiate signaling through intracellular calcium, cAMP, PKA and MAPK signaling pathways and converge on transcription factors such as CREB, SRF and MEF2, among others, to activate ARC gene expression (reviewed in Epstein and Finkbeiner, 2018).
During synaptic activity, ARC mRNA is rapidly transported to active synapses after transcription and is locally translated (Steward et al, 1998; Giorgi et al, 2007). ARC contributes to synaptic strength by promoting AMPA receptor internalization (Chowdhury et al, 2006).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
9808461 Synaptic activation causes the mRNA for the IEG Arc to localize selectively near activated postsynaptic sites on dendrites

Wallace, CS, Lyford, GL, Steward, O, Worley, PF

Neuron 1998
17088211 Arc/Arg3.1 interacts with the endocytic machinery to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking

Worley, PF, Plath, N, Lyford, G, Shepherd, JD, Kuhl, D, Petralia, RS, Huganir, RL, Chowdhury, S, Okuno, H

Neuron 2006
7857651 Arc, a growth factor and activity-regulated gene, encodes a novel cytoskeleton-associated protein that is enriched in neuronal dendrites

Sanders, LK, Yamagata, K, Lyford, GL, Worley, PF, Lanahan, AA, Gilbert, DJ, Copeland, NG, Kaufmann, WE, Barnes, CA, Jenkins, NA

Neuron 1995
29559111 The Arc of cognition: Signaling cascades regulating Arc and implications for cognitive function and disease

Epstein, I, Finkbeiner, S

Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 2018
19193899 The serum response factor and a putative novel transcription factor regulate expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1 in neurons

Verdin, E, Peebles, CL, Finkbeiner, S, Kim, HJ, Pintchovski, SA

J. Neurosci. 2009
11343657 Selective targeting of newly synthesized Arc mRNA to active synapses requires NMDA receptor activation

Steward, O, Worley, PF

Neuron 2001
14969744 Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation induces expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated gene (ARC)

Teber, I, Speckmann, EJ, Barnekow, A, Kremerskothen, J, Köhling, R

Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2004
7777577 Somatodendritic expression of an immediate early gene is regulated by synaptic activity

Krug, M, Link, W, Schwanke, B, Kuhl, D, Frey, U, Konietzko, U, Kauselmann, G

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995
17088210 Arc/Arg3.1 is essential for the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and memories

Grant, SG, Therstappen, E, Gross, C, Welzl, H, Cooke, SF, Wurst, W, Mao, X, Lipp, HP, Ohana, O, Blanquet, V, Stawrakakis, A, Dammermann, B, Salmen, B, Mahlke, C, Engelsberg, A, Bösl, MR, Plath, N, Wolfer, DP, Bick-Sander, A, Bliss, TV, Kobalz, U, Fernández, E, Schmitz, D, Errington, ML, Waltereit, R, Kuhl, D

Neuron 2006
17632064 The EJC factor eIF4AIII modulates synaptic strength and neuronal protein expression

Turrigiano, G, Katz, DB, Burge, C, Yeo, GW, Giorgi, C, Moore, MJ, Stone, ME

Cell 2007
17898216 Sustained Arc/Arg3.1 synthesis controls long-term potentiation consolidation through regulation of local actin polymerization in the dentate gyrus in vivo

Bramham, CR, Tiron, A, Kanhema, T, da Silva, B, Messaoudi, E, Soulé, J, Dagyte, G

J. Neurosci. 2007
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