RNASEL cleaves cellular ssRNA

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-9009936
Type
Reaction [omitted]
Species
Homo sapiens
Compartment
Synonyms
RNASEL cleaves cellular ssRNA to generate 5'-OH, 2'-3' cyclic phosphate RNA fragments
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Ribonuclease L (RNase L) is an ankyrin (ANK) repeat domain containing dual endoribonuclease-pseudokinase which is encoded by RNASEL gene (Wreschner DH et al. 1982; Zhou A et al.1993; Hassel BA et al. 1993; Huang H et al. 2014; Han Y et al. 2014). Activated RNase L forms a homodimer (Dong B & Silverman RH 1995) which cleaves within single-stranded regions of different RNA substrates, predominantly after UpAp and UpUp dinucleotides, leaving 2',3'-cyclic phosphoryl and 5'-hydroxyl groups at the termini of the RNA cleavage products (Wreschner DH et al. 1981; Floyd-Smith G et al. 1981; Han Y et al. 2012; Cooper DA et al. 2014). The antiviral function of RNase L extends beyond direct cleavage of viral RNA and includes also cleavage of cellular RNA such as mRNA and rRNA that is required for viral replication (Wreschner DH et al. 1981; Silverman RH et al.1983; Brennan-Laun SE et al. 2014; Cooper DA et al. 2014). RNase L induces apoptosis to eliminate virus-infected cells and autophagy to limit viral infections in some circumstances (Zhou A et al. 1997; Castelli JC et al. 1997; Chakrabarti A et al. 2012). Depending on the cell type and basal levels of RNase L, viral and cellular RNA cleavage products induce signaling to the IFN beta gene through RIG-I and/or MDA5 and MAVS (Malathi K et al. 2007; Banerjee S etl al. 2014).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
24500209 Ribonuclease L and metal-ion-independent endoribonuclease cleavage sites in host and viral RNAs

Cooper, DA, Jha, BK, Silverman, RH, Hesselberth, JR, Barton, DJ

Nucleic Acids Res. 2014
6190010 rRNA cleavage as an index of ppp(A2'p)nA activity in interferon-treated encephalomyocarditis virus-infected cells

Silverman, RH, Skehel, JJ, James, TC, Wreschner, DH, Kerr, IM

J. Virol. 1983
Participants
Participant Of
Catalyst Activity
Catalyst Activity
Title
endoribonuclease activity of RNASEL:2'-5' oligoadenylate [cytosol]
Physical Entity
Activity
Orthologous Events
Authored
Reviewed
Created
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