Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a major class of cell surface proteins involved in Signal Transduction. Human cells contain ~60 RTKs, grouped into 20 subfamilies based on their domain architecture. All RTK subfamilies are characterized by an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane region and an intracellular region consisting of the tyrosine kinase domain and additional regulatory and protein interaction domains. In general, RTKs associate into dimers upon ligand binding and are activated by autophosphorylation on conserved intracellular tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation increases the catalytic efficiency of the receptor and provides binding sites for the assembly of downstream signaling complexes (reveiwed in Lemmon and Schlessinger, 2010). Common signaling pathways activated downstream of RTK activation include RAF/MAP kinase cascades (reviewed in McKay and Morrison, 2007 and Wellbrock et al 2004), AKT signaling (reviewed in Manning and Cantley, 2007) and PLC-gamma mediated signaling (reviewed in Patterson et al). Activation of these pathways ultimately results in changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism.
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
16260143 Phospholipase C-gamma: diverse roles in receptor-mediated calcium signaling

Snyder, SH, Nikolaidis, N, van Rossum, DB, Gill, DL, Patterson, RL

Trends Biochem Sci 2005
15520807 The RAF proteins take centre stage

Wellbrock, C, Karasarides, M, Marais, R

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2004
17604717 AKT/PKB signaling: navigating downstream

Manning, BD, Cantley, LC

Cell 2007
17496910 Integrating signals from RTKs to ERK/MAPK

McKay, MM, Morrison, DK

Oncogene 2007
20602996 Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases

Schlessinger, J, Lemmon, MA

Cell 2010
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