ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1, aka RNase L inhibitor, RLI) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporters which express in the cytoplasm and the nuclear membrane. ABCE1 is induced during viral infections (Bisbal C et al. 1995; Martinand C et al. 1998, 1999). ABCE1 (RLI) was shown to associate with RNase L inhibiting the endoribonuclease activity of RNase L, thus antagonising the anti-viral effect of the IFN-regulated 2'-5' oligoadenylate/RNase L pathway (Bisbal C et al. 1995; Martinand C et al. 1998, 1999). Furthermore, overexpression or knockdown of ABCE1 (RLI) has inhibitory or promoting effects on the binding of RNase L to 2'-5' oligoadenylates, rRNA cleavage, destabilization of mitochondrial mRNA, antiviral activity, and antitumor activity (Martinand C et al. 1998, 1999; Le Roy F et al. 2001; Malathi K et al. 2004; Huang B et al. 2014; Tian Y et al. 2016). Aside from its role as an RNase-L inhibitor, ABCE1 is believed to be involved in translation termination and ribosome recycling (Dong J et al. 2004; Chen ZQ et al. 2006; Khoshnevis S et al. 2010).