The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), interacts with the nuclear hormone receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the nucleoplasm of any target tissue (Neme et al. 2017). VDR regulates the actions of 1,25(OH)2D and their binding recruits coactivators (Eelen et al. 2005, Kim et al. 2005, Du et al. 2017) to initiate a signaling response that regulates an estimated upwards of 2000 genes involved in calcium homeostasis, immune responses, cellular growth, differentiation and apoptosis (Hossein-nezhad et al. 2013, Hossein-nezhad & Holick 2013, Wolden-Kirk et al. 2012, Prietl et al. 2013, Hewison 2012, Christakos et al. 2016, Bandera Merchan et al. 2017).