The RUNX1:CBFB complex directly inhibits transcription of the SERPINB13 gene (Nomura et al. 2005), a gene involved in keratinocyte differentiation that is frequently down-regulated in head and neck cancers (Boyapati et al. 2011). RUNX1 also inhibits transcription of STAT3 inhibitors SOCS3 and SOCS4, resulting in elevated STAT3 activity. RUNX1-mediated increase in STAT3 activity, first discovered in keratinocytes, is thought to be involved in the maintenance of epithelial stem cells and contributes to development of epithelial cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Scheitz et al. 2012).