RNA Polymerase III Transcription Initiation From Type 3 Promoter

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Homo sapiens
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The metazoan-specific type 3 promoters, which are exemplified by the human U6 promoter, recruit a complex variously called the snRNA activating protein complex (SNAPc) (Sadowski et al., 1993), the PSE binding protein (PBP) (Waldschmidt et al., 1991), or the PSE transcription factor (PTF) (Murphy et al., 1992). The complex contains five types of subunits and binds to the PSE. Type 3 promoters also recruit Brf2-TFIIIB through a combination of protein-protein contacts with SNAPc and a direct association of the TBP component of Brf2-TFIIIB with the TATA box. This then allows RNA polymerase III to join the complex.

The down stream element (DSE) of type 3 promoters, which enhances transcription from the core promoter, almost invariably contains an octamer sequence and an SPH element (also called NONOCT element)(Cheung et al., 1993; Danzeiser et al., 1993; Kunkel et al., 1996; Myslinski et al., 1992). The octamer sequence recruits the POU domain protein Oct-1 (Herr et al., 1988; Sturm et al., 1988), and the SPH element recruits a zinc finger protein known as Staf or SPH binding factor (SBF), which has been cloned from humans (Myslinski et al., 1998; Rincon et al., 1998).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
2853685 Activation of the U2 snRNA promoter by the octamer motif defines a new class of RNA polymerase II enhancer elements

Hernandez, N, Herr, W, Grossniklaus, U, Tanaka, M

Genes Dev 1988
1868835 Identification of transcription factors required for the expression of mammalian U6 genes in vitro

Waldschmidt, R, Seifart, KH, Wanandi, I

EMBO J 1991
1535687 Oct-1 and Oct-2 potentiate functional interactions of a transcription factor with the proximal sequence element of small nuclear RNA genes

Yoon, JB, Gerster, T, Murphy, S, Roeder, RG

Mol Cell Biol 1992
9705341 ZNF76 and ZNF143 are two human homologs of the transcriptional activator Staf

Myslinski, E, Krol, A, Carbon, P

J Biol Chem 1998
9776743 Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding human SPH-binding factor, a conserved protein that binds to the enhancer-like region of the U6 small nuclear RNA gene promoter

Kunkel, GR, Rincon, JC, Hargrove, BW, Engler, SK

Nucleic Acids Res 1998
8979085 Identification of a SPH element in the distal region of a human U6 small nuclear RNA gene promoter and characterization of the SPH binding factor in HeLa cell extracts

Stumph, WE, Cheung, TC, Kunkel, GR, Urso, O, Miyake, JH, McNamara-Schroeder, KJ

Gene Expr 1996
8336708 Functional characterization of elements in a human U6 small nuclear RNA gene distal control region

Kunkel, GR, Danzeiser, DA, Urso, O

Mol Cell Biol 1993
8339931 Targeting TBP to a non-TATA box cis-regulatory element: a TBP-containing complex activates transcription from snRNA promoters through the PSE

Henry, RW, Lobo, SM, Sadowski, CL, Hernandez, N

Genes Dev 1993
2905684 The ubiquitous octamer-binding protein Oct-1 contains a POU domain with a homeo box subdomain

Sturm, RA, Herr, W, Das, G

Genes Dev 1988
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