IRS is one of the mediators of insulin signalling events. It is activated by phosphorylation and triggers a cascade of events involving PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases. The proteins mentioned under IRS are examples of IRS family members acting as indicated. More family members are to be confirmed and added in the future.
Using receptor mutagenesis studies it is known that IRS1 via its PTB domain binds to the insulin receptor at the juxtamembrane region at tyrosine 972. The interaction is further stabilized by the PH domain of IRS1 which interacts with the phospholipids of the plasma membrane. This allows the receptor to phosphorylate IRS1 on up to 13 of its tyrosine residues. Once phosphorylated the IRS1 falls away from the receptor. Now in a tyrosine phosphorylated and hence activated state other proteins can interact with the IRS proteins.