In parallel sequences of three reactions each, thymine is converted to beta-aminoisobutyrate and uracil is converted to beta-alanine. Both of these molecules are excreted in human urine and appear to be normal end products of pyrimidine catabolism (Griffith 1986; Webster et al. 2001). Mitochondrial AGXT2, however, can also catalyze the transamination of both molecules with pyruvate, yielding 2-oxoacids that can be metabolized further by reactions of branched-chain amino acid and short-chain fatty acid catabolism (Tamaki et al. 2000). The importance of these reactions in normal human pyrimidine catabolism has not been well worked out.