Late envelope proteins or late cornified envelope proteins (LCEs) are a family of 18 proteins that are expressed after assembly of the cornified envelope (CE) is advanced (Marshall et al. 2000, Kypriotou et al. 2012). They are incorporated into the CE late in the process of envelope maturation during epidermal differentiation. They are probable substrates for epidermal transglutaminases and proposed to link CE proteins and mediate differences in barrier quality, perhaps through interaction with cytoplasmic components of the cornified cell (Marshall et al. 2001). Human LCEs fall into distinct structural groups, encoded by genes which form clusters on the genome at 1q21 (Marshall et al. 2001, Niehues et al. 2016). Group 1 are expressed predominantly in epidermis. Group 4 (LEP 13-17) have highest expression in internal epithelia (Wang et al. 2001, Marshall et al. 2001).
De Paiva, CS,