Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF

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Homo sapiens
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While BRAF-specific inhibitors inhibit MAPK/ERK activation in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutant, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling has been observed after treatment of cells with inhibitor in the presence of WT BRAF (Wan et al, 2004; Garnett et al, 2005; Heidorn et al, 2010; Hazivassiliou et al, 2010; Poulikakos et al, 2010). This paradoxical ERK activation is also seen in cells expressing kinase-dead or impaired versions of BRAF such as D594V, which occur with low frequency in some cancers (Wan et al, 2004; Heidorn et al, 2010). Unlike BRAF V600E, which occurs exclusively of activating RAS mutations, kinase-impaired versions of BRAF are coincident with RAS mutations in human cancers, and indeed, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling in the presence of inactive BRAF is enhanced in the presence of oncogenic RAS (Heidorn et al, 2010; reviewed in Holderfield et al, 2014). Although the details remain to be worked out, paradoxical ERK activation in the presence of inactive BRAF appears to rely on enhanced dimerization with and transactivation of CRAF (Heidorn et al, 2010; Hazivassiliou et al, 2010; Poulikakos et al, 2010; Roring et al, 2012; Rajakulendran et al, 2009; Holderfield et al, 2013; Freeman et al, 2013; reviewed in Roskoski, 2010; Samatar and Poulikakos, 2014; Lavoie and Therrien, 2015). RAF inhibitors can promote association of RAF-RAS interaction and enhanced RAF dimerization through disruption of intramolecular interactions between the kinase domain and its N-terminal regulatory region. Moreover, specific BRAF inhibitors can only occupy one protomer within the transcactivated BRAF dimer due to negative co-operativity leading to paradoxical ERK activation. (Karoulia et al, 2016; Jin et al, 2017, reviewed in Karoulia et al, 2017).

Literature References
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Mol. Cell 2013
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Nat Commun 2017
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Nature 2010
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Cancer Cell 2016
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Cancer Cell 2013
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Nature 2010
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Niculescu-Duvaz, D, Lee, S, Marais, R, Marshall, CJ, Barford, D, Jones, CM, Good, VM, Springer, CJ, Wan, PT, Garnett, MJ, Roe, SM

Cell 2004
Name Identifier Synonyms
cancer DOID:162 malignant tumor, malignant neoplasm, primary cancer
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