PGLYRP2 binds bacterial peptidoglycan

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R-HSA-6799981
Type
Reaction [binding]
Species
Homo sapiens
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs) are innate immunity molecules that contain a conserved peptidoglycan‑binding type 2 amidase domain that is homologous to bacteriophage and bacterial type 2 amidases (Kang D et al. 1998; Liu C et al. 2001; Royet J and Dziarski R 2007; Royet J et al. 2011; Dziarski R et al. 2016). Mammals have a family of four PGRPs (PGLYRP1, 2, 3 & 4) that are differentially expressed in a cell‑type‑ or tissue‑specific manner. PGLYRP2 (also known as PGRP-L) is constitutively expressed in the liver, from which it is secreted into blood as non-disulfide‑linked dimers (Liu C et al. 2001; Zhang Y et al. 2005; De Pauw P et al. 1995; Hoijer MA et al. 1996). PGLYRP2 expression can be also induced in the skin and intestine upon exposure to bacteria or pro-inflammatory cytokines (Wang H et al. 2005; Li X et al. 2006). The constitutive expression of PGLYRP2 in the liver and induced expression in epithelial cells is regulated by different transcription factors, the binding sequences for which are located in different regions of the pglyrp2 promoter (Li X et al. 2006). PGRP2 binds to bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and functions as N‑acetylmuramoyl‑L‑alanine amidase that hydrolyzes the amide bond between the MurNAc and L‑alanine in peptidoglycan (Wang ZM et al. 2003; Zhang Y et al. 2005). The minimal peptidoglycan fragment hydrolyzed by PGLYRP2 is MurNAc-tripeptide (Wang ZM et al. 2003). PGLYRP2 has a conserved Zn(2+)‑binding site in the peptidoglycan‑binding groove, which is also present in bacteriophage type 2 amidases, and PGLYRP2 requires Zn(2+) for its amidase activity (Wang ZM et al. 2003). The amidase activity of mammalian PGLYRP2 is though to eliminate the pro‑inflammatory peptidoglycan and, therefore, prevent over‑activation of the immune system and excessive inflammation (Hoijer MA et al. 1997; Royet J and Dziarski R 2007). In addition to its amidase activity, PGLYRP2 also has antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Chlamydia (Bobrovsky P et al. 2016), similar to PGLYRP1, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4 (Lu X et al. 2006; Wang M et al. 2007).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
16354652 Peptidoglycan recognition proteins are a new class of human bactericidal proteins

Lu, X, Wang, M, Qi, J, Wang, H, Li, X, Gupta, D, Dziarski, R

J. Biol. Chem. 2006
14506276 Human peptidoglycan recognition protein-L is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase

Wang, ZM, Li, X, Cocklin, RR, Wang, M, Wang, M, Fukase, K, Inamura, S, Kusumoto, S, Gupta, D, Dziarski, R

J. Biol. Chem. 2003
16054449 Identification of serum N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase as liver peptidoglycan recognition protein 2

Zhang, Y, van der Fits, L, Voerman, JS, Melief, MJ, Laman, JD, Wang, M, Wang, H, Wang, M, Li, X, Walls, CD, Gupta, D, Dziarski, R

Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2005
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