NRXNs bind NLGNs

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Neurexins bind Neuroligins
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The mammalian genome contains three NRXN genes (NRXN1, NRXN2 and NRXN3), each of which produce from independent promoters a longer alpha- and a shorter beta neurexin isoform. Furthermore, extensive alternative splicing at five canonical positions generates thousands of NRXN isoforms. In situ hybridizations showed that different alpha and beta-NRXNs are co-expressed in the same class of neurons, but that each type of NRXN is differentially distributed among different classes of neurons (Ullirich et al. 1995, Sudhof 2009, Missler et al. 2012).
Neuroligins (NLGNs) are endogenous NRXN ligands. NLGNs are expressed from four genes in vertebrates (NLGN-1 to -4). All NLGNs are alternatively spliced at a single canonical position (referred to as SS A) (Boucard et al. 2005, Ichtchenko et al. 1996). In contrast to neurexins, neuroligins are specifically localized to particular synapses. NLGN1 is only present at excitatory synapses (Song et al. 1999), NLGN2 and NLGN4 at inhibitory synapses (Varoqueaux et al. 2004, Hoon et al. 2011), whereas NLGN3 is present at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses (Budreck and Scheiffele 2007). alpha- and beta-neurexins both bind to all neuroligins to form cell adhesion complexes (Boucard et al. 2005). alpha-NRXNs with thier sixth LNS (laminin, neurexin and sex hormone-binding globulin-like) domain and beta-NRXNs with their single LNS domain bind to the lateral sides of the NLGNs esterase-homology domain (Fabrichny et al. 2007, Arac et al. 2007, Chen et al. 2008, Boucard et al. 2005, Reissner et al. 2008).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
25378172 Direct visualization of trans-synaptic neurexin-neuroligin interactions during synapse formation

Boucard, AA, Südhof, TC, Araç, D, Tsetsenis, T, Brunger, AT

J. Neurosci. 2014
18812509 Mutational analysis of the neurexin/neuroligin complex reveals essential and regulatory components

Reissner, C, Fairless, R, Klose, M, Missler, M

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008
16846852 Alternative splicing controls selective trans-synaptic interactions of the neuroligin-neurexin complex

Chih, B, Gollan, L, Scheiffele, P

Neuron 2006
8576240 Structures, alternative splicing, and neurexin binding of multiple neuroligins

Nguyen, T, Südhof, TC, Ichtchenko, K

J. Biol. Chem. 1996
16624946 Structure function and splice site analysis of the synaptogenic activity of the neurexin-1 beta LNS domain

Craig, AM, Hauner, AM, Kang, Y, Graf, ER

J. Neurosci. 2006
9927700 Neuroligin 1 is a postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecule of excitatory synapses

Song, JY, Brose, N, Südhof, TC, Ichtchenko, K

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999
7736595 Neuroligin 1: a splice site-specific ligand for beta-neurexins

Nguyen, T, Südhof, TC, Hata, Y, Moomaw, C, Ullrich, B, Ichtchenko, K, Missler, M

Cell 1995
21282647 Neuroligin-4 is localized to glycinergic postsynapses and regulates inhibition in the retina

Varoqueaux, F, Soykan, T, Patrizi, A, Hoon, M, Sassoè-Pognetto, M, Brose, N, Moser, T, Löwel, S, Falkenburger, B, Schmidt, KF, Taschenberger, H, Hammer, M

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011
17897391 Neuroligin-3 is a neuronal adhesion protein at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses

Budreck, EC, Scheiffele, P

Eur. J. Neurosci. 2007
7695896 Cartography of neurexins: more than 1000 isoforms generated by alternative splicing and expressed in distinct subsets of neurons

Südhof, TC, Ullrich, B, Ushkaryov, YA

Neuron 1995
15540461 Neuroligin 2 is exclusively localized to inhibitory synapses

Varoqueaux, F, Brose, N, Jamain, S

Eur. J. Cell Biol. 2004
16242404 A splice code for trans-synaptic cell adhesion mediated by binding of neuroligin 1 to alpha- and beta-neurexins

Taylor, P, Boucard, AA, Südhof, TC, Comoletti, D, Chubykin, AA

Neuron 2005
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