Hypochlorous acid and nitrite react to nitryl chloride (NO2Cl)

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Locations in the PathwayBrowser
SVG |   | PPTX  | SBGN
Click the image above or here to open this reaction in the Pathway Browser
The layout of this reaction may differ from that in the pathway view due to the constraints in pathway layout

Nitrated and chlorinated proteins were found in bacteria phagocytosed by polymorphonuclear cells, suggesting a host–defense mechanism mediated by reactive nitrogen and chlorine species (Evans TJ et al. 1996; Hazen SL et al. 1996). Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was shown to react with nitrite NO2(-) to form nitryl chloride (NO2Cl) (Eiserich JP et al. 1996). NO2Cl formation by activated human neutrophils in the presence of added NO2(-) has been also demonstrated (Eiserich JP et al. 1998). The addition of HOCl to isolated DNA or cells in the presence of NO2(-) results in increased cytosine chlorination and DNA oxidation compared with DNA or cells in the absence ofadded NO2(-) (Whiteman M et aal. 1999; Spencer JP et al. 2000). NO2Cl was also capable of nitrating, chlorinating, and dimerizing phenolic compounds such as tyrosine (Jacob JS et al. 1996; Eiserich JP et al. 1996, 1998). These studies have emphasized the potential toxic effects of nitrite and HOCl-reaction products. However, NO2(-) has also been reported to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of HOCl and MPO (van Dalen CJ et al. 2000;Marcinkiewicz J et al. 2000).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
9450756 Formation of nitric oxide-derived inflammatory oxidants by myeloperoxidase in neutrophils

Eiserich, JP, Freeman, BA, Jones, AD, Cross, CE, Hristova, M, van der Vliet, A, Halliwell, B

Nature 1998
8702599 Formation of nitrating and chlorinating species by reaction of nitrite with hypochlorous acid. A novel mechanism for nitric oxide-mediated protein modification

Eiserich, JP, Jones, AD, Cross, CE, van der Vliet, A, Halliwell, B

J. Biol. Chem. 1996
Cite Us!