CHIA hydrolyses chitin

Stable Identifier
Reaction [omitted]
Homo sapiens
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Chitin is a linear polymer made up of repeating units of the sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose. It is found in the cell walls of bacteria and fungi, the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects, and the microfilarial sheath of parasitic nematodes. Chitinases are evolutionarily ancient enzymes that hydrolyse the chitin polymer into di- and trisaccharides. This process produces differentially sized chitin fragments that can trigger the release of type 2 cytokines, including interleukin IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 by CD4 T helper (Th2) and other immune cells which play critical roles in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic responses. Humans express two active chitinases; acidic mammalian chitinase (CHIA, AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1) . CHIA is a secreted enzyme that can randomly hydrolyse chitin (and chitotriose, not shown here) (Boot et al. 2001, Chou et al. 2006, Harti et al. 2008, Olland et al. 2009, Seibold et al. 2009).
Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
16584180 Kinetic characterization of recombinant human acidic mammalian chitinase

Czerwinski, R, Xuan, D, Aulabaugh, A, Zhou, H, Chou, YT, Huang, X, Yao, S, Lin, L, Fitz, L, Brooks, J, Presman, E, Krykbaev, R, Strand, J, Fleming, M

Biochemistry 2006
19435888 Differential enzymatic activity of common haplotypic versions of the human acidic Mammalian chitinase protein

Weiss, KB, Fahy, JV, Choudhry, S, Rodriguez-Santana, J, Seibold, MA, Sheppard, D, Lenoir, M, Reese, TA, Kumar, R, Locksley, RM, Gilliland, FD, Salam, MT, Boot, RG, Thyne, S, Atakilit, A, Eng, C, Schleimer, RP, Avila, P, Watson, HG, Burchard, EG, Beckman, K, Rodriguez-Cintron, W, Grammer, LC, Meade, K

J. Biol. Chem. 2009
19241384 Triad of polar residues implicated in pH specificity of acidic mammalian chitinase

Czerwinski, R, Chopra, R, Kriz, R, Somers, W, Mosyak, L, Schlingmann, G, Lin, L, Olland, AM, Joseph-McCarthy, D, Stahl, M, Fitz, L, Krykbaev, R, Presman, E, Strand, J, Fleming, M

Protein Sci. 2009
11085997 Identification of a novel acidic mammalian chitinase distinct from chitotriosidase

Bijl, N, Boot, RG, Moe, C, Swart, E, Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, K, Blommaart, EF, Place, A, Aerts, JM

J. Biol. Chem. 2001
18824549 Acidic mammalian chitinase is secreted via an ADAM17/epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent pathway and stimulates chemokine production by pulmonary epithelial cells

He, CH, Da Silva, CA, Koller, B, Elias, JA, Hartl, D, Lee, CG, Homer, R

J. Biol. Chem. 2008
Catalyst Activity

chitinase activity of CHIA [extracellular region]

Orthologous Events
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